December 29, 2011
SHELL SA said yesterday that it expected fuel availability at its Gauteng service stations to improve this week.Certain areas of Gauteng experienced fuel shortages after Shell’s Alberton fuel depot was shut down earlier this month for safety reasons following a fuel leak at the site.
"While the leak was immediately isolated, the depot remained closed until it was deemed safe to resume operations," Shell spokesman Elton Fortuin said yesterday. The fuel delivery backlog as a result of the problems at the Alberton depot has heightened the possibility of fuel shortages in other areas such as Mpumalanga and Free State as well.
The company yesterday said the Alberton fuel depot became fully operational this past weekend, with normal fuel delivery services commencing on Saturday.
"We still have a significant delivery backlog to clear and only expect fuel availability to improve at our Gauteng retail service stations during the course of this week. We regret the inconvenience caused to our retailers and the public," Mr Fortuin said.
Meanwhile, an outage at Sapref’s single-buoy mooring, a loading buoy anchored offshore, could worsen the fuel shortages. The buoy serves as a mooring and interconnection point for tankers loading or offloading gas or liquid products.The Durban-based Sapref refinery is the biggest crude oil refinery in southern Africa, with 35% of SA’s refining capacity.
"We have activated our contingency measures and are monitoring closely the potential impact the single-buoy mooring outage could have on our ability to supply fuel. We are also holding daily planning meetings to assess stock levels and prioritise fuel deliveries to ensure we minimise any supply disruptions during this period," Mr Fortuin said.Sapref said yesterday the Durban single-buoy mooring was taken out of service for unplanned repairs on Tuesday last week.
"Good progress has been made and it is expected that the repairs will be completed in a number of days, weather permitting," Sapref spokeswoman Cindy Govender said yesterday.Gauteng motorists recently experienced a spate of fuel shortages, mainly because of planned and unplanned maintenance shutdowns at some of the country’s refineries.
Other than petrol and diesel, the shutdowns led to a shortage of liquefied petroleum gas and bitumen. The shortages exposed the inadequacy of SA’s existing import facilities.The liquefied petroleum gas shortages affected, among others, the manufacturing, automotive and hospitality sectors, while bitumen is used to produce asphalt, used in road construction.
Source - http://www.businessday.co.za/articles/Content.aspx?id=161725
December 5, 2011
By Andrea Tan
November 25, 2011
Last week, an eagerly awaited shipment of 4200t of bitumen arrived on the Tasco 1, a bitumen and asphalt carrier belonging to Tipco Maritime. The cargo was brought in by specialist manufacturer Colas from a refinery in Singapore.
The bitumen load is being divided among Raubex, Much Asphalt and smaller contractors, who have been forced to halt road construction projects because supply of the product has dropped. Workers on site were asked to take leave over the periods when bitumen supply came to a virtual standstill in September and October. The disruption was experienced over 45 days and work was suspended for up to three weeks.
Bitumen is produced at a number of oil refineries, including Caltex, Natref and Sapref. But scheduled maintenance shutdowns and a fire at the Sapref refinery, which caused an unscheduled shutdown, had a serious effect on supply.
Though the constraints have not affected the cost of bitumen, since it is priced at a set rate, contractors’ costs have soared.
Much Asphalt CEO Phillip Hechter estimates that the problem has cost the industry as much as R2,5bn.
Raubex financial director Francois Diedrechsen says the company has had to use the shipment to “make the best of a bad situation”, but that importing is not sustainable .
Bringing the bitumen into the country is expensive and complicated. The product is also slapped with a 10% import duty upon its arrival in SA. Diedrechsen says the duty was put in place to protect local refineries that produce bitumen, but that under the current conditions it no longer makes sense.
He says that road contractors have difficulty storing bitumen, which needs to be kept in temperature-controlled facilities. None of the contractors has this kind of infrastructure. If Raubex did have storage facilities or was able to store bitumen at refineries, Diedrechsen says, it would import large quantities at a time.
Much Asphalt will transport the product to 17 small facilities around the country. Hechter says that were oil refineries to import bitumen and store it at their existing facilities, companies would be spared having to use a ship as a storage facility and incurring costly docking charges. But he believes importing is going to become standard practice.
Diedrechsen agrees, but says that if refineries could indicate to the industry exactly what they intended producing, the industry could make decisions about building the infrastructure to store bitumen. It can’t do this without certainty that local production would not suddenly increase, he says.
Part of the problem, says Hechter, is that the average age of SA’s refineries exceeds 30 years, and that unscheduled maintenance has become more frequent.
To compound the local supply problem, Engen recently exported 4000t of bitumen and so could release a mere trickle of bitumen into the national market, Hechter says.
Bitumen users have been forced to rely on supply from the Natref refinery, which also has production constraints, and a Caltex refinery in the Western Cape, which is far from road construction sites and produces only one type of bitumen, whereas the industry uses three.
Companies have had discussions with the SA National Roads Agency and the department of transport. Were import duties to be dropped, bringing bitumen in from outside would be more affordable.
Sanral CEO Nazir Alli says national roads absorbed about 70% of SA’s total bitumen supply in 2010.
Shortages have a big impact on its projects, as it is used in the final surface layer of a road.
Earlier this year, Sanral considered asking the energy department to declare bitumen a strategic mineral . This would force refineries to maintain a minimum reserve. However, it is unclear whether Sanral will resort to this measure.
Source - http://www.fm.co.za/Article.aspx?id=159523
November 22, 2011
November 2, 2011
BENIN-COMMUNITIES in the bitumen belt has called on Federal Government to urgently convene a national stakeholders’ forum to address their aspirations and concerns. They also want government to commence dialogue with them with a view to creating awareness and unity amongst the host communities.
The bitumen producing states in the country are Ondo, Ogun and Edo.
The bitumen belt communities, which met in Benin, Edo State, yesterday, under the auspices of Bitumen Consultative Forum, organised by Environmental Rights Action/Friends of the Earth, ERA/FoN, also demanded for equity share in the revenue from bitumen proceeds as proposed in the Petroleum Industry Bill now before the National Assembly.
According to the communiqué issued at the end of the one-day meeting by Dr. Uyi Ojo: “We demand an MoU to specify communities’ roles and responsibilities, including benefits between government and oil companies.
“The government must ensure the protection of the people and ensure the sustainability of a healthy environment.”
They stressed the need for the local people to be adequately empowered, if and when they are relocated from their communities at the commencement of bitumen extraction in their areas.
They insisted that the evils visited on oil producing communities in the Niger Delta region should not be allowed in the bitumen belt. when extraction of the deposit commences, the communities called for upward periodic review of benefits accruing to communities.
November 1, 2011
Quality of roads
Warner is also concerned about the quality of the road works and fears that the highway from San Fernando to Point Fortin will not last, given the poor quality of work.
Warner raised the issues during a tour yesterday of Lake Asphalt, La Brea, where he met with several contractors.
Contractors were told that the company was instituting a "no credit" policy because Lake Asphalt was being owed millions, and could not collect.
Warner said some contractors "say they can't get bitumen. I want to know where the bitumen is going and who are the culprits behind it. I have to wonder why our roads so bad".
He said the surface on older highways lasted 30 years, but the roads being paved today "don't even last 30 months".
He said, "I cannot continue spending money that way. I want to know whether I have any reason to fear
about the highway to Point Fortin."
Chairman of Lake Asphalt, Kuarlal Rampersad, said the company was meeting all contractors' demands for material and he was surprised that they were complaining. He said a certificate of analysis was submitted with each truckload or batch of material coming from the Pitch Lake, La Brea.
Rampersad said, "One contractor purchased three million gallons and based on the records no jobs were done. That is why we are working closely with the ministry. One contractor was given a sweet-bread deal by paying (less) for asphalt while others paid the full price".
Rampersad said "by January 1 (next year) each contractor must register their business. They must partner with Lake Asphalt to purchase bitumen. That way it should be planned and scheduled before they come for asphalt".
Rampersad said the company was also introducing a "no credit" policy to curb instances of contractors not paying. He said one contractor owed $24 million.
Source - http://www.trinidadexpress.com/business/Contractors_complaining_about_asphalt_shortage-132976038.html
Liberty Tire Recycling Expert to Serve as a Speaker at the Fifth Annual Rubber Modified Asphalt Conference- Doug Carlson to Highlight Noise Reduction Effect from Rubberized Asphalt
Titled "Noise Reduction Effect from Rubber Modified Asphalt," Carlson's presentation is scheduled for 8:00 a.m. on Friday, November 4. During this time, he will discuss programs implemented across Arizona, California, Texas and New Jersey. The presentation will also offer details on a European study that focused on how rubberized asphalt can contribute to quieter pavement.
"Noise pollution is an ongoing concern across our nation's highways. It can have a significant impact on the quality of life, particularly in communities adjacent to major roadways," said Doug Carlson, vice president of asphalt products, Liberty Tire Recycling. "Noise reduction is only one of the benefits of rubberized asphalt. It is also proven to resist cracking and rutting, enhance traffic safety, and reduce splash and spray in wet conditions."
Liberty Tire Recycling is helping to make many of the nation's highways and roadways safer and more durable through the creation of rubberized asphalt. The company provides crumb rubber to a host of municipalities and states. Paving contractors then mix the crumb rubber with traditional asphalt to produce a high-performance alternative to traditional paving materials. It also requires less construction and maintenance costs than traditional asphalt, which saves time and money for all involved.
Topics to be covered during this year's Rubber Modified Asphalt Conference include an analysis of the life-cycle costs of rubber modified asphalt, noise reduction attributed to rubber modified asphalt cold weather applications, performance grading, terminal blending, research on hybrid blends of rubber and an update on research recently concluded and rubber products used in highway and road maintenance.
For more information about Liberty Tire Recycling and the company's rubberized asphalt, visit
About Liberty Tire Recycling
Liberty Tire Recycling is the premier provider of tire recycling services in North America. By recycling more than 140 million tires annually, Liberty Tire reclaims about 1.5 billion pounds of rubber for innovative, eco-friendly products. The recycled rubber produced by Liberty Tire is used as crumb rubber and industrial feedstock for molded products; as tire-derived fuel for industrial kilns, mills and power plants; and as rubber mulch for landscaping and playgrounds. The company maintains a nationwide network of processing plants, and comprehensive door-to-door collection services. Liberty Tire Recycling is headquartered in Pittsburgh, PA. For more information, please visit www.libertytire.com.
Read more: http://www.sacbee.com/2011/10/31/4019679/liberty-tire-recycling-expert.html#ixzz1cPwL19sg
October 31, 2011
Once thought of as a punishment from the gods, this bubbling lake of pitch is perhaps Trinidad's greatest oddity. Birdwatchers will find it of interest as well for the species it attracts. The 40-hectare expanse of asphalt is 90 metres deep at its centre, where hot bitumen is continuously replenished from a subterranean fault. The lake, one of only three asphalt lakes in the world, has the single largest supply of natural bitumen, and as much as 300 tonnes are extracted daily. The surface looks like a clay tennis court covered with wrinkled elephant-like skin, and during the rainy season you can sit in its warm sulphurous pools.
The annual migration of the red land crab to the sea is a world-renowned spectacle. Photo: Greg Miles
From NOAH EBIJE, Kaduna
Photo: Sun News Publishing
Management of PPMC was also accused of encouraging the importation of bitumen to the detriment of its Nigerian products, which, they said, had made the imported bitumen to thrive in the Nigerian market. The concerned marketers under the Oil and Gas Suppliers Association (OGSA), an arm of the National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas workers (NUPENG) alleged before newsmen that the management of the Kaduna office of the PPMC deliberately refused to give them the bitumen even after paying for the allocation.
According to them, some importers of bitumen had petitioned the company complaining that after importing bitumen which they sold at about N145,000 per metric ton, the PPMC was selling its own bitumen for N75,000 per ton, putting them at a loss. Some of the marketers who spoke to newsmen on condition of anonymity said, “we were given allocation for bitumen which we paid for. We were asked to come for loading. But after loading only three trucks, we were sent out on the excuse that they want to increase the price of the product.
“We also observe that for the past three years, they will only give us products during the rainy season when road constructions are not going on. But during the dry season, they will deny us products.“The top management is in link with some importers. We later heard that these importers wrote a petition that the government asked them to import bitumen when there was none in the country and that while they are selling their own for N145,000 per ton, the PPMC is selling its own for N75,000 per ton.“So, what they want is for the PPMC to stop selling its own until they have finished selling the imported one. We believe that this is an act of sabotage on government efforts at rehabilitating our roads and this explains why road construction is so expensive in the country today.
“At the moment, there is enough bitumen in the store at the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC). In fact, the present stock can fill over 1000 trucks. The refinery is not producing at the moment because there is no place to store the products. “Most of us have our allocation papers which we have paid for. It has an expiring date and in most cases, they will refuse to renew it and for the past two months, they have refused to load our trucks.
“Even if they want to increase price, the normal thing has always been that a circular is released and before you leave the loading bay, you are made to pay the balance. But right now, the truth is that these importers want PPMC to stop selling so that they can exhaust their imported products.”
Source - http://www.sunnewsonline.com/webpages/news/national/2011/oct/28/national-28-10-2011-017.html
Microsurfacing offers a 25% savings in direct costs of roads in addition to being eco-friendly. Interview with Col.Rakesh Bhargava, VP, Yala Construction and Elsamex.
October 28, 2011
October 24, 2011
Refinery shutdowns ‘cause industrial crisis’
By Roy Cokayne
October 20, 2011
Council prepares roads in Weston-super-Mare for winter
Deputy leader and executive member for highways at North Somerset Council, Elfan Ap Rees, said that surface dressing is a quick, low cost way of improving the condition and skid resistance of a road surface.
He said "It prevents water seeping into the foundations of the road and delays the need to carry out more extensive and costly carriageway repairs.
"We carry out surface dressing between the months of May and September as weather conditions need to be dry and warm to enable the bitumen to stick to the carriageway and ensure long-term stability of the dressing."
Roads which have been surface dressed are: part of West Town Road (A370), Backwell; Silver Moor Lane, Banwell; Ashey Lane, Blagdon; Bridgwater Road (A370), Coronation Road/Bleadon Road, and Shiplate Road, Bleadon; Burrington Coombe (B3134), Burrington; Blagdon Lane, Butcombe; Churchill Green/Sandmead Road, Churchill; Crookes Lane and Lower Norton Lane, Kewstoke; Broadmead Lane, Regil; and Tower House Lane, Wraxall.
The process involves spraying bitumen over the surface of the existing carriageway and covering it with a layer of stone chippings.
As the bitumen sets, the stone chippings are compacted in by the use of a roller and further assisted by vehicles travelling over the newly laid surface. Any excess chippings are then swept up.
The main contractor was Balfour Beatty and the cost for this year's programme is in the region of £270,000.
Source - http://www.westonsupermarepeople.co.uk/Council-prepares-roads-Weston-super-Mare-winter/story-13589924-detail/story.html
DAVID GLEASON: Toll roads are costing us the earthThe tolls that will be charged for the use of roads upgraded in terms of Gauteng’s Freeway Improvement Programme have prompted a deluge of complaints
October 19, 2011
The project comprises the construction of a single carriageway road of 12.3m wide asphalt with two bridges and more than 100 concrete box culverts. Talking about the challenges on the project, N Surendra Kumar, Managing Director, Khalid bin Ahmed and Sons (KAS) said many challenges would have come during the construction of the project. Availability of water for construction purposes is an issue. The company is also concerned over possible escalation of prices of main components like bitumen and steel.
The deadline for the project completion is December 2013. “When compared to our other two major projects currently being undertaken, the new project will be a relatively easy one. Although the contract period is only 24 months, KAS is confident that they can complete the project on time albeit all the challenges.
“Talking about the manpower on the project, the MD asserted that they will give priority to Omanis especially from the Dhahira region in order to boost the Omanisation drive within the company. Asked on why the company will give such a preference to the people from the region, Surendra Kumar said it will facilitate the people to work as well as attend to their personal needs since they are not far away from home.
KAS is one of Oman’s leading road infrastructure development companies established in 2000. Since then the company has been registering a steady growth and is poised to undertake major road projects within the Sultanate of Oman.
October 17, 2011
Bitumen is used to produce asphalt, which is used in road construction.
Not only will the shortage hamper road construction, warns Hechter, it may also lead to job losses within the industry, and the closure of a number of small contractors.
He says the current shortage has cost the asphalt industry and its customers R2.3-billion to date, not to mention the unquantified costs of roads falling even deeper into disrepair, and the closure of smaller companies.
“I have had a number of smaller contractors phone and say that if the situation does not improve soon they will have to close their doors. I know companies are asking employees to take leave – we are – and putting employees on short time. Much Asphalt has 17 asphalt plants around the country. Fourteen of them have been standing idle for the last few days. The other three have very limited supplies of bitumen and will also stop operations by the weekend. I have absolutely no doubt other manufacturers are in the same predicament.
“In 31 years in this industry I have never experienced a situation like this one. Natref is the only refinery that has any bitumen and they are only feeding one or two loads per day into the system and that is for the whole country. I can foresee this situation continuing for the next four to six months.”
The current shortage of supply started with a fire at the Engen refinery in Durban on October 10, with the operation now in shutdown until November 23, and bitumen only expected to flow at the beginning of December.
Following a lengthy shutdown period, the Sapref refinery was suppose to be online with bitumen supply on October 15, but it now appears as if this may only happen on October 25.
Bitumen stock at Chevron, Cape Town, was depleted by October 4, as demand outstripped supply, and the bitumen plant has been experiencing problems.
The only remaining refinery, Natref, is now left to cope with excessive demand on its systems, with the situation expected to improve somewhat in late November.
Hechter says the only solution to the problem is to import bitumen.
“This is not as simple as it sounds, but circumstances may force our hand.”
A list of bitumen customers presented to Engineering News Online hints at a number of road construction projects placed in jeopardy by the bitumen shortage. They include work on the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project, such as work on the N12, Johannesburg’s bus rapid transport project, the R23 in Standerton, the John Ross highway, in Kwazulu-Natal, and the N7 at Piketberg, to name but a few.
CAPE CHAMBER CONCERNED ABOUT N1, N2 PROJECT
The Cape Chamber of Commerce has also noted their concern about the continuing bitumen shortage in South Africa. The current situation is not a new one, and is similar to a shortage experienced in the first half of 2010.
The chamber notes that there “may not be enough bitumen available for the construction of the N1 and N2 Winelands toll roads, as well as to maintain existing roads” in the Western Cape.
“There has been a shortage of bitumen for several years and this has led to costly delays in construction projects and even the repair of potholes,” says chamber president Michael Bagraim.
He points out that the Gauteng toll road project has been held up “several times” because of the shortage of bitumen, which has been one of the factors which has increased costs on the project.
“The toll-road delays were just the most visible part of the problem. Other projects had to compete for bitumen supplies and, because they were smaller, they frequently came off second best to the toll-road contractors.”
Bagraim says a similar situation is likely in the Western Cape. He says it is questionable whether there will be enough bitumen available in the Cape for the municipalities to maintain their roads while the big N1, N2 project gobbled up most of the local supplies.
He adds that evidence of the already existing supply shortage can be seen on Boyes Drive, where construction equipment has been standing idle for days because there is no bitumen available.
“The situation will become much worse when work starts on the toll roads. It will force up the cost of every other road construction project and there will be even more days when plant stands idle and workers twiddle their thumbs because the South African National Roads Agency (Sanral) has grabbed all the available bitumen,” says Bagraim.
According to his sources, there has been a shortage of bitumen for several years, with deficits of 20% to 35% in some months over the last five years.
“Under the circumstances it may be advisable to delay the Cape toll road projects until there is sufficient bitumen available to do the job without damaging other sectors of the economy,” notes Bagraim.
Construction on the project is expected to start in 2012.
SANRAL HARD HIT BY SHORTAGE
Sanral says it accounted for about 70% of the bitumen used in South Africa in 2010.
As a result any bitumen shortage that exists within the industry "severely" affects the completion of the agency's projects, with the product used in the final road surface layer, notes Sanral in a written response to questions from Engineering News Online.
Sanral says the problem is made worse by the fact that during the May to August winter period no bitumen seal related work can be performed over about 75% of South Africa, owing to the low overnight temperatures. This results in these projects having to be delayed until September, which now poses a problem on the back of the bitumen shortage.
By: Irma Venter
October 14, 2011
by Rufat Abbasov - News.Az
October 13, 2011
Nagaland first to use waste tech for roads
Dimapur, October 11 (MExN): Pollution authorities in Nagaland have refuted a news report stating Meghalaya to be the first state in the North Eastern region to use bitumen and waste plastic to pave roads. Nagaland Pollution Control Board (NPCB) issued a note today saying Nagaland has in fact used the stated technology way back in 2010.
Member secretary of the board, Rusovil John said in the note that the agency had used the technology for a stretch of road in Dimapur. “I would like to state that the Nagaland Pollution Control Board in the year 2010 has used this technology using the bitumen polymer (plastic waste) for construction of a road within the office compound at Signal Point, Dimapur. The Nagaland Pollution Control Board had also bought out a pamphlet on the technology of using plastic waste in road construction,” the agency said.
A PTI report had stated in a news report on October 5 that Meghalaya state was the first state from the NE to use the technology in constructing roads.
October 11, 2011
The GTP includes plans to extend asphalt roads by over 100000Km across the country said Richard Ntombella, senior sales and technical officer for DuPont Sub-Saharan Africa. He added that improving road infrastructure is integral to the GTP and the economic development of the country.
“With the Road Network as the main supply chain for exporting and importing goods, it is essential that the infrastructure is capable of supporting GDP growth, as it plays a critical role in the development of other industries” said Ntombella at a the DuPont seminar held at Sheraton Addis to introduce its asphalt technology, Elvaloy.
The Asphalt materials previously used in road construction in Ethiopia have failed to withstand the demands made by heavy traffic and weather conditions explained Ntombella. Elvaloy has long been in use internationally as an additive to bitumen to help resist deterioration in the asphalt according to DuPont.
The Addis Ababa Roads Authority (AARA) and the Ethiopian Roads Authority are considering introducing the use of Elvaloy in upcoming road construction programs, according to sources. Both authorities were represented at the seminar conducted by DuPont.
The Dupont subsidiary in Ethiopia, pioneer, has been in business in Ethiopia as a supplier of high yield seeds for the past twenty years according to representatives of the organization.
Source: The Reporter
October 5, 2011
To start with a four-km stretch in Jhalupara area of the city, which gets damaged every year due to heavy rains, will be re-constructed by Shillong Cantonment Board at an estimated cost of Rs 30 lakh.
Chief executive officer of the board, S Prabhakaran, told agency that the board is approaching R Vasudevan, the patented owner of the technology who heads the chemistry department at the Thiagarajar College of Engineering in Madurai.
Asked about the cost of the new construction, Prabhakaran said it will be the same as of conventional bitumen mix but will have a longer lifespan.
Meghalaya to have bitumen-plastic roads
"To lay one km of plastic road 3.75 m wide, 9 tonnes of bitumen and 1 tonne of waste plastic are required for coating. A normal road requires 10 tonnes bitumen for each kilometre. So a plastic road saves 1 tonne bitumen for every kilometre laid. Each tonne of bitumen costs Rs 50,000 to 60,000," he said.
The Board is planning to use waste and confiscated plastic bags for the purpose after the Meghalaya government imposed a blanket ban on the use of plastic bags.
"To begin with, we will use the confiscated plastic bags. But for the remaining quantity the board will have to buy plastic waste," he said.
Meghalaya State Planning Board vice chairman, John F Kharshsing, had earlier suggested that the state government should tap the modern method of laying more durable all weather roads in the state in the wake of the climatic condition.
Meghalaya receives average annual rainfall as high as 1200 cm in some areas.
Source - http://zeenews.india.com/news/north-east/meghalaya-to-have-bitumen-plastic-roads_734907.html
October 4, 2011
Rebuilding C&D Waste Recycling Efforts in India
In India nearly 50% of Construction & Demolition waste is being re-used and recycled, while the remainder is mostly landfilled. Professor Sadhan Ghosh explains why the management of this material is becoming a major concern for town planners, and challenges of increasing awareness about recycling.
In India it's common practice for large Construction and Demolition (C&D) projects to pile waste in the road, resulting in traffic congestion. C&D waste from individual households finds its way into nearby municipal bins and waste storage depots making the municipal waste heavy, and degrading its quality for treatments such as composting or energy recovery. The Indian construction industry is highly labour intensive and has accounted for approximately 50% of the country's capital outlay in successive Five Year Plans, and projected investment continues to show a growing trend. Out of 48 million tonnes of solid waste generated in India, C&D waste makes up 25% annually.
Rapid economic growth leading to urbanisation and industrialisation is generating waste, which is adversely effecting the environment. The percentage of India's population living in cities and urban areas increased from 14% at the time of independence to 27.8%. Projections for building material requirement by the housing sector indicate a shortage of aggregates to the extent of about 55,000 million m3. An additional 750 million m3 of aggregates would be required to achieve the targets of the road sector. There is also a huge demand for aggregates in the housing and road sectors, but there is a significant gap in demand and supply.
Estimated waste generation during construction is 40 kg per m2 to 60 kg per m2. Similarly, waste generation during renovation and repair work is estimated to be 40 kg per m2 to 50 kg per m2. The highest contribution to waste generation comes from the demolition of buildings. Demolition of pucca (permanent) and semi-pucca buildings, on average generates between 300kg per m2 and 500 kg per m2 of waste, respectively.
The presence of C&D waste and other inert matters makes up almost one third of the total MSW on an average, but so far no notable development has taken place for using this in an organised manner. At present, private contractors remove this waste to privately owned, low-lying land for a price, or more commonly, dump it in an unauthorised manner along roads or other public land.
The fine dust like material (fines) from C&D waste is not currently being used and is thus wasted. In more than 95% cases wastes such as bricks, metal, wood, plastics and glass have some market value and there are contractors who focus solely on dealing in C&D wastes. The use of these materials requires them to be sorted and separated, and is dependent on their condition, although the majority of this material is durable and therefore has a high potential for reuse. It would, however, be desirable to have quality standards for the recycled materials.
An investigation revealed that total waste from India's construction industry could reach 12-14 mt per year
In view of the significant role of recycled construction material in the development of urban infrastructure, the Technology Information, Forecasting & Assessment Council (TIFAC) has conducted a techno-market survey on 'Utilisation of Waste from Construction Industry', targeting the house building and road construction industries. The total quantum of waste from the construction industry is estimated to be between 12 million to 14.7 million tonnes per annum, out of which seven to eight million tonnes are concrete and brick waste. According to the survery's findings 70% of the respondents said they were "not aware of the recycling techniques" as the reason for not recycling C&D waste, while the remaining 30% have indicated that they are not even aware of recycling possibilities. Furthermore, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and other codal provisions do not provide specifications for the use of recycled products in construction activities.
In July this year, in West Bengal, a consultative committee comprising top level municipal management and experts from the Centre for Quality Management System and Mechanical Engineering of Jadavpur University and government departments was formed to address solid waste management issues, including C&D Wastes.
Construction waste in Delhi
Gurgaon Municipal Corporation near Delhi is planning a C&D waste recycling plant on five acres of land. There is considerable construction activity taking place in Gurgaon, but no place to dump the C&D wastes. The fast pace of the construction and renovation work will continue for at least the next five years. Hence, there is need for a C&D waste processor.
With the three existing landfill sites having exhausted their capacity some time ago, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has given the go-ahead for the establishment of a sanitary landfill facility at Narela-Bawana in northwest Delhi.
The Rs 700 million ($15.5 million) integrated solid waste management facility is being developed to meet Delhi's garbage disposal needs for the next 20 years. The site is being developed as the first engineered landfill site in the city and is spread over 150 acres. Approximately 50 acres will be kept aside for disposing of C&D wastes.
The landfill site will take care of refuse from Rohini and Civil Lines zones, and has an initial capacity to handle 1000 tonnes per day, and is planned to expand to handle 4000 tonnes per day. Around 6500 tonnes per day of MSW is generated in Delhi. The Narela-Bawana landfill site has been notified under Master Plan 2021. In addition, the MCD has also carried out a feasibility study on use of C&D waste in road and embankment construction.
Recycled roads in Kolkata
As in many other countries, in Kolkata the recycling of bituminous material is carried out using hot or cold mixing techniques either on site, or at a central asphalt mixing plant. It offers benefits including reduced use of asphalt, energy savings and a reduction in aggregate requirements. Cold in-situ recycling is done by pulverising chunks of road material to a certain depth, mixing in cement, bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen and compacting. This recycling process is best suited to roads with light traffic.
For hot in-situ recycling, the upper layer of the road is pre-heated and the asphalt is loosened by milling devices. It is mixed together with a recycling agent and the mixture is spread along the road and compacted. Both practices are widespread in Kolkata.
In India there has yet to be a concerted effort to enact legislation governing C&D waste management. There are however some initiatives in different states to address the issue in isolation, or in tandem with the existing Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000.
One example of this is the state of Maharashtraa, which has taken a pioneering step to include a separate collection and disposal of debris and bulk waste in its Action Plan. Under the plan each city is required to have a mechanism for the collection and disposal of waste and construction debris from bulk producers. The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai has enacted the "Construction, Demolition and De-silting Waste (Management and Disposal) Rules".
Waste recycling plans should be developed for construction and demolition projects, prior to beginning construction activity. The plans should identify the wastes that will be generated and designate handling, recycling and disposal methods.
A minimum of 4% of the total site area should be allocated for storage and pre-treatment of the waste. This storage area should be covered and the pollutants from the waste should not affect the surrounding. Demolition contractors specialise in planned deconstruction that enables the recovery of good material for re-use to be maximised. Recovery rates vary from 25% in old buildings to as high as 75% in new buildings. The demolition of old buildings usually generates wastes such as brick, wood and steel. In India most of the old buildings are mainly made up of good quality bricks. The foundation of the old buildings is of load bearing type where a huge number of bricks were used. When an old building is demolished, almost all the materials are sold at reasonable price. Table 1 shows the quantity and make up of C&D waste per annum in India.
Analysis shows that reuse of construction waste can reduce the cost of low budget houses by approximately 30% to 35% without compromising the durability of the structure.
Legislation needs to specifically address C&D waste management. In addition, the awareness level and availability of technology for C&D waste re-use and recycling needs to be improved to make a sustainable change in India. Quality standards for the recycled or re-used products need to be developed and monitored by Bureau of Indian Standards.
Not much effort has been made in this sector and data on generation and characteristics is scarcely available. There should be a proper institutional mechanism to take care of the collection, transportation, intermediate storage (if necessary), utilisation and disposal of C&D wastes. Appropriate rules should be framed and implemented. Separation of C&D waste should be promoted at source and private enterprise can be gainfully employed for the collection and transportation of the waste. Public-Private-Partnership schemes may be a possible mechanism of implementation of C&D waste management in India.
Sadhan Ghosh is president of the International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW), India and professor of Mechanical Engineering at Jadavpur University, Kolkata. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Co-authors include Sannidhya Ghosh, a day scholar at the university and Asit Aich, executive engineer, department of municipal affairs, Government of West Bengal, Kharagpur.http://www.waste-management-world.com/index/display/article-display/6652396623/articles/waste-management-world/volume-12/issue-5/features/rebuilding-c-d-waste-recycling-efforts-in-india.html