Showing posts with label Saudi Bitumen. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Saudi Bitumen. Show all posts

November 23, 2013

Buffet Continues to invest in Bitumen

Buffett Increases His Oil Sands Stake With $3.45 Billion Exxon Mobil Investment

Ron Daems, President of Strata Oil & Gas Inc., discusses how Warren Buffett's latest oil investment affects shareholders

It has now been revealed that Warren Buffett's oil sands exposure has increased again, with his 40.1 million share purchase of Exxon Mobil, one of the world's leading producers and a major player in Alberta's enormous bitumen play through its 70% stake in Imperial Oil.

This is Buffett's second recent high-profile oil investment, the first being in June when Berkshire Hathaway announced it had taken a $500-million stake in Suncor Energy Inc., the world's leading oil sands producer and Canada's largest integrated operator.

Tellingly, Buffett increased his stake in Exxon Mobil right around the time it was acquiring the enormous Clyden in-situ bitumen project from ConocoPhillips - a company whose stock he just sold, reducing his holdings in it by 44 percent.

ExxonMobil/Imperial also owns the Kearl project - another massive Alberta-based bitumen project with 4.6 billion barrels of bitumen resource and a project lifespan of over 40 years. Production is already at 80,000 barrels per day.

In short, Buffett's ExxonMobil stake gives him ownership in Imperial Oil - one of Exxon Mobil's jewels-in-the-crown, partly because of its enormous Canadian oil sands position.
Ron Daems, President of Strata Oil, provided these comments to shareholders:

"Strata Oil views Buffett's increased stake in ExxonMobil as good news for Alberta's bitumen producers, and a real endorsement of the future potential of the resource. Many of the leading 'Carbonate Triangle' companies have already attracted the investment dollars of some of the world's major investment institutions including Warburg Pincus, Blackstone Capital, and Goldman Sachs. But there's no doubt that Buffett's $3.45 billion stake in ExxonMobil/Imperial and his earlier $500 million stake in oil-sands producer Suncor is the kind of good news that really bodes well for Alberta's bitumen production," said Mr. Daems.

"All these developments mean that momentum is building in Alberta's bitumen carbonate play, and Strata Oil has one of the largest and most attractive projects in the industry. We acquired our project in 2005 and 2006, making us one of the earliest companies to position in the carbonates. Through drilling and geological analysis, we now have a recoverable resource of 887 million barrels of crude, and a total resource of 3.4 billion barrels. We believe our company offers substantial value to its shareholders."

Strata Oil's Cadotte Central project is estimated to have a Net Present Value (NPV) of USD $1.3 billion. Its newly updated total of 887 million bbls of recoverable bitumen provides significant additional upside potential which hasn't been factored into the $1.3 billion calculation yet.

Source- einews

March 23, 2012

Plastic Roads

A week after it formally announced the decision to lay a 10km long road using plastic wastes, Coimbatore city corporation has launched a massive hunt for carry bags weighing less than 40 microns. The initiative targeting shops and establishments has been vastly successful, with officials seizing an average of 400 kg of plastic a day.

The seized plastics will be used along with plastic waste collected across the city to construct the proposed road. According to Corporation Commissioner T K Ponnusamy, the civic body is hell-bent on making the city free from plastic pollutants. "We have intensified our drive to seize banned plastic. Our focus is on locating wholesale distributors of banned plastic. The public can also help by informing the corporation on illegal use of plastic," he said.

According to C M J Raman, Secretary of Citizen's Voice Club, it is a welcome initiative to lay roads using plastic wastes. "Developed by a professor in Madurai, this technology has been widely successful. It is good to know that the corporation will help eliminate pollutants in this way. If the corporation takes steps to bring down the price of cloth bags, more people will opt for them," he said. According to Ponnusamy, the corporation is yet to identify the road to be laid using plastic. But works should begin very soon, he said. Only recently, the Chennai corporation laid a similar road near Valluvar Kottam successfully.

"Plastic waste is mixed with asphalt to create a compound called polymerized bitumen which enables the road to withstand monsoons and everyday wear and tare," said a corporation official who says they are hoping to collect at least 50 tonnes of plastic wastes for this purpose. If it is successful, they plan to lay more roads this way, he revealed.

With the initiation of this project, the corporation's anti-plastic drive which had lost its sheen is now regaining momentum. Many leading shops in the city have stopped using the banned plastic. D Ramesh, managing director of three franchisees of supermarket chain Nilgiris, says that they strictly follow the corporation's directive.

"We do not sell plastic covers below 40 microns. Also, we charge for every cover. Each may cost from Rs 1 to Rs 3 depending on size. We even lost a few customers at our Race Course branch as neighbouring shops do not charge for covers. Some customers bring their own bags. However, I cannot say that the use of plastic has come down significantly," he said.

M Priya, a lecturer, says that she believes there are limitations in banning plastics altogether. "Alternative options must be explored. Cloth bags can be used. But there are limitations as it is not always possible to carry a cloth bag," she said. P Lovelin, a businessman in Podanur echoes the same sentiment. "It is good if we can avoid all types of plastics. But how often will we remember to take a cloth bag. It is odd to carry such a bag in front of people," he says frankly

Source - Times of India 

August 24, 2011

Bitumen Production up in Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan saw its oil bitumen production at 136,930 tonnes in January-July, sources in the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan said.

The production was 9,760 tonnes in January, 9,520 tonnes in February, 18,060 tonnes in March, 25,610 tonnes in April, 26,000 tonnes in May, 22,390 tonnes in June and 25,590 tonnes in July.

Production of petroleum bitumen increased by 14,410 tonnes compared to the same period last year.

It is worthy to note that by the outcomes of 2010 Azerbaijan produced 241,400 tonnes of oil bitumen, a 2.1% increase over 2009.

Rufat Abbasov


January 29, 2009

Bitumen companies go wireless to monitor production facilities

Bitumen often poses storage and handling problems. Here, Sean Ottewell reports on two Australian companies who are tackling these by turning to wireless communication solutions.

BP Bitumen operates its Australian bitumen facilities in Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia. Bulwer Island near Brisbane is the largest production facility with sales of 200 000 t/y. Products include paving grade bitumens, multigrade and a wide range of polymer-modified binders (PMBs).

The products are manufactured using purpose built equipment to rigorous quality and control standards and are designed to have better strength and durability than standard bitumens to deliver longer lasting roads.

Now the company has successfully overcome a fuel supply outage at the site by using Smart Wireless technology from Emerson Process Management.

Wireless instruments normally monitor the pipeline integrity of transfer lines from the nearby BP refinery and report exceptional conditions to control room operators via the easy-to-use self-organising wireless network. The wireless solution showed its flexibility recently when two wireless transmitters were quickly deployed to manage fuel delivery from temporary LPG tanks rushed into service during a refinery shutdown of the regular fuel system.

Officials at BP Bitumen seized upon Smart Wireless as a cost-effective and reliable method of monitoring the temporary fuel gas supply system (Fig. 1).

The plant normally fires natural gas in a heater to maintain a hot oil network at 280°C. All plant bitumen lines have hot oil tracing to keep the viscous product flowing. Even a temporary interruption to the supply of fuel to the heater can adversely effect operations because if the heater shuts down, the plant cools very quickly. If the plant goes completely cold, it can take three to four days to restart.

The cost of sourcing replacement product to meet existing contracts could be as much as AS$150 000 for a fuel outage of one week's duration. For this reason, a close visual watch had to be maintained on the temporary LPG supply to monitor it 24 hours per day. The Smart Wireless solution was implemented to monitor the transfer lines in May 2008, and fuel monitoring was put into service shortly thereafter.

The Smart Wireless field network solution included two Rosemount wireless pressure transmitters that were installed to monitor the fuel delivery from the LPG tanks. With relatively little time to prepare for the natural gas outage, it was not possible to size the temporary LPG system for the maximum firing capacity of the hot oil heater. Without careful monitoring, the heater's burner control system could call for more gas than was available, sucking the fuel line dry and tripping the heater.

However, with the wireless pressure transmitters in place, the burner control system could monitor the LPG supply pressure and avoid the trip scenario. The wireless monitoring of the LPG fuel delivery kept the bitumen plant running, saving the company AS$20 000 per day in lost production. The wireless solution also provided safe remote oversight of the fuel supply instead of continuous operator monitoring at the LPG facility. The plant operated successfully in this way for the duration of the week-long outage.

In addition to the fuel monitoring, three Rosemount wireless temperature transmitters are placed along the plant's bitumen transfer lines to monitor flow of the hot (170°C) bitumen. These instruments transmit status continuously, allowing immediate action if needed to maintain the flow of bitumen to the plant.

"This wireless network monitors pipeline integrity, helping to ensure that no issues go unnoticed for any length of time," according to Matthew James, operations manager at the BP Bitumen facility. "If we had not had the wireless installations, we could not have reacted so quickly to the fuel outage and that could have shut us down for over a week. As a tool to help troubleshoot unusual process conditions anywhere on the plant, they're indispensable."

Each field device in Emerson's self-organising wireless technology acts as a router for other nearby devices, retransmitting messages until they reach the network's Smart Wireless Gateway, which channels the incoming data to a control point. If there is an obstruction, transmissions are simply re-routed along the mesh network until a clear path to the gateway is found. As conditions change or new obstacles are encountered in a plant, such as temporary scaffolding, new equipment, or a parked construction trailer, these wireless networks simply reorganise and find a way to deliver their messages.

All of this happens automatically, without any involvement by the user, providing redundant communication paths and better reliability than direct, line-of-sight communications between individual devices and a receiver. This self-organising technology optimises data reliability while minimising power consumption. It also reduces the effort and infrastructure necessary to set up a successful wireless network, because up to 99 wireless devices can be served by one gateway. New instruments can normally be added to a network in just minutes.

"This wireless concept is not a fad or gimmick," James said. "It really works, and the operating range is amazing. It is a long distance from the temporary LPG bullets to the control room. The fact that we could transmit that far and do so reliably without a single loss of signal is quite magical."

Another Australian business that has also adopted a wireless solution to help handle bitumen is Terminals Pty, the country's largest independent bulk liquid terminals company.

The unloading, storage, and shipping facilities near the industrial port city of Geelong include a 900-metre pier and 16 or more tanks. At this location, the company imports and stores bulk vinyl chloride monomer and other hazardous and non-hazardous combustible and corrosive liquids, fats, and oils. Hot bitumen storage facility is part of a recently completed expansion project

Terminals Pty selected Smart Wireless to monitor temperatures in the 900 metre long, eight-inch wide, heat-traced pipeline used for unloading bitumen from ships at Geelong. It is necessary to make certain the electric heaters are operating all along the pipeline to keep the bitumen hot (160°C) and fluid. If a heater fails, a cold spot could form causing the bitumen to solidify and plugging the line with expensive consequences.

"We needed to monitor the bitumen line," according to Bitumen Terminal project manager Joe Siklic, "to make the operators aware of cooling anywhere in the line from the ship to the storage facility, which could result in an emergency shutdown. Any delay in unloading could keep a ship at the pier longer than planned with demurrage costing up to US$30 000/day."

The wireless technology was selected, Siklic said, for its lower initial cost and minimal maintenance as compared with hard wiring. Eight Rosemount wireless temperature transmitters are evenly spaced along the pipeline, sending temperature readings on one-minute intervals to a Smart Wireless Gateway on shore that channels data to the AMS Suite predictive maintenance software used for instrument configuration and performance monitoring.

The collected data are also forwarded to a SCADA system in the terminal control centre via fibre-optic cable.

Due to the self-organising nature of this technology, each wireless device acts as a router for other nearby devices, passing the signals along until they reach their destination. As with BP Bitumen's solution, if there is an obstruction, transmissions are simply re-routed along the mesh network until a clear path to the Smart Wireless Gateway is found. All of this happens automatically, without any involvement by the user, providing redundant communication paths and better reliability than direct, line-of-sight communications between individual devices and their gateway. "This is an ideal application for wireless," Siklic said. "Since numerous paths exist to carry the transmissions, the network would easily compensate for a transmitter failure, and the operators would be warned. This wireless network has proved to be reliable, compatible with existing control equipment, and cost effective. The amount of structure on the wharf is minimal, and that is another benefit."

January 22, 2009

Cutback Bitumen Process

Field Manufacture of Asphalt Cutbacks
Various types and grades of asphalt cutbacks can be manufactured in the field with standard equipment. Thinner cutbacks can be produced from the more viscous grades. Field manufacture of SC and MC, however, is more practicable than field manufacture of RC because of the rapid evaporation of gasoline from RC. Also, a greater danger of fire or explosion from the gasoline exists.

Equipment and Production Rate
The rate of production is usually controlled by the speed that AC can be emptied from the drums and heated in the asphalt melters to suitable temperatures for pumping. The production rate for the asphalt melter is about 750 gallons per hour. Figure 5-1 shows the suggested arrangements of equipment uses in the manufacture of asphalt cutbacks. For small-scale production, use a truck- or trailer-mounted distributor or a 5,000-gallon, trailer-mounted asphalt tank with heating coils, instead of a 4,000-gallon mixing and storage tank. Arrange piping and pumping to fit each particular installation.

At least one safety inspector should be assigned to each operation to help personnel stay focused on their particular job. He ensures that personnel observe safety precautions within his area of responsibility. Personnel must strictly observe safety precautions when heating bitumens. They must—

Keep foam-type fire extinguishers available at all times.
Maintain oil heaters, storage tanks, asphalt melters, and distributors in a level position before heating.
Never heat bitumens near buildings or flammable materials.
Control ventilation of melters, heaters, and distributors to prevent escape of flammable vapors near flames or electrical equipment.
Stay to the windward side of equipment to avoid excessive exposure to fumes.
Reduce heat when foaming might cause overflow.
Extinguish burners after bitumen has reached the temperature given in Table 2-1 .
Extinguish burners and evacuate personnel if a dense, yellow vapor rises from the asphalt melter, distributor, or storage tanks. (This indicates overheating to the extent that a spark could cause an explosion.)
Extinguish burners before spraying bitumen from a distributor.
Never smoke within 50 feet of any equipment. A designated smoking area should be at least 100 feet upwind of the equipment during heating operations.
Examine all hoisting equipment daily.
Never fill buckets or containers to the top if they will be hoisted.
Never allow the asphalt level to fall below the fire tubes while the burners are in operation.
Consult appropriate TMs for clean-out operations.
Wear long-sleeve shirts, cuffless pants, fireproof gloves, heavy-soled boots, and steel combat helmets or civilian safety hats. This clothing helps protect workers if hot bitumen accidentally spills on them.

The procedures for the field manufacture of asphalt cutback are outlined below. Strictly observe the safety precautions associated with the procedures to avoid the danger of fire or explosion. See Table 5-2 for the composition of asphalt cutback.

Use special axes or cutting tools to remove the heads from asphalt drums, and inspect the contents of each drum. Eliminate drums that are contaminated with water or material that could cause foaming or fire. Take care when opening the drums to avoid serious injury, which can be caused by improper use of cutting tools.

Load the drums inside the dedrumming tunnel using an electric winch or a lifting device to pick up the drums. The Army uses different types of melters. The main difference between them is the melting capacity, which ranges from 8 to 12 drums inside the dedrumming tunnel. Heat the AC to about 250°F until it is fluid enough to pump easily. Figure 5-2 shows a typical asphalt melter.

Asphalt Cement
Once the AC (or cutback) is heated to a workable state, pump it to storage. The 5,000-gallon heated tanks are usually used as storage tanks. Use the oil-jacketed lines between the units to maintain the asphalt in the pipelines at a constant temperature that is high enough to keep the asphalt fluid.

Blow out all the lines (except oil-jacketed) that become plugged with cold asphalt. For oil-jacketed lines, heat uneducated elbows and keep oil in the jacket. If the original asphalt material cannot be delivered hot, pump it directly to the storage tanks.

Pump about 2,000 gallons of AC from the heated storage tanks to the 5,000-gallon mixing tanks. If using a distributor or a trailer-mounted tank for mixing small quantities, pump it about half full to leave space for cutter stock and the foaming action that may result when adding the cutter stock.

Adjust the temperature in the mixing chamber between 240° and 250°F. Pump circulation accompanied by heating or atmospheric cooling will help regulate this temperature. If the temperature drops below 240°F, the AC will not be fluid enough to pump easily or mix readily with the cutter stock. At higher temperatures, much of the cutter stock will be lost in a gaseous form and a serious fire hazard will exist.

After the original material in the mixing tank is adjusted to the specified temperature, stop circulation and estimate the quantity of material in the tank. Determine the required amount of cutter stock to place in the mixing tank, and pump the desired quantity into the tank.

For best mixing results, introduce the cutter stock near the intake pipe that leads to the circulation pump. Pump the heated original material and the cutter stock through a closed system in the mixing tank. Cover the openings in the tank with wet burlap or canvas while blending cutbacks. Ensure that fire-fighting facilities are readily available.

When manufacturing cutbacks from AC, start pumping as soon as the AC is fluid enough to pump without damaging or placing a strain on the trailer-mounted asphalt pump. Ensure that the temperature is as low as possible, not to exceed 250°F because of the fire hazard. After mixing, usually about 30 minutes, pump the newly manufactured asphalt cutback to final storage.

Material Requirements
The following example shows how to calculate the combined quantities of AC and cutter stock needed for a specific type and grade of asphalt cutback:

Example: Calculate the quantity, in gallons, of AC and diesel oil that must be combined to produce 750 gallons of SC-800.

Solution: SC-800 is composed of 70 percent soft AC, with a preferred penetration of 200 to 300 and 30 percent diesel oil by volume ( Table 5-2 ).

(0.7) (750) = 525 gallons of AC
(0.3) (750) = 225 gallons of diesel oil

The procedure for determining the proportion of cutter stock added to asphalt cutback to produce a lower (thinner) grade is outlined below. Use the data in Table 5-2 and the following formula:


x = percent of cutter stock to be added to the cutback to be thinned

a = percent of cutter stock in desired cutback of lower grade

b = percent of cutter stock in cutback to be thinned

Example: Calculate the amount of kerosene and MC-800 cutback used to produce 1,000 gallons of MC-70 cutback.


x = 20.7 percent kerosene
x = 79.3 percent MC-800

To produce 1,000 gallons of MC-70, combine 207 gallons (1,000 x 0.207) of kerosene with 793 gallons (1,000 x 0.793) of MC-800.

Use the following example to calculate yield:

Example: The materials available in the field for bituminous construction include 1,000 gallons of 120 to 150 penetration AC, 750 gallons of MC-3,000, and 1,750 gallons of kerosene. Determine the following:

How many gallons of MC-30 can be produced by combining the AC with the kerosene.
How many gallons of MC-30 can be produced by combining the MC-3,000 with the kerosene.
How many total gallons of MC-30 can be produced.
Solution: Determine the percentage of AC and kerosene in MC-30 by referring to Table 5-2 . MC-30 contains 54 percent AC and 46 percent kerosene. If 1,000 gallons of 120 to 150 penetration AC represents 54 percent of the MC-30 to be produced, use the following formula to determine how many gallons of kerosene should be added to the AC:

x = gallons

Combining 1,000 gallons of AC and 851 gallons of kerosene produces 1,851 gallons of MC-30.

Use the following formula to determine the percent of kerosene added to MC-3,000 to produce MC-30:


x = percent of kerosene to add to MC-3,000

a = percent of kerosene in MC-30 (see Table 5-2 )

b = percent of kerosene in MC-3,000 (see Table 5-2 )

Use the following formula to determine the amount of MC-30 that can be produced by combining the MC-3,000 with the kerosene. The previous equation determined that 37.2 percent of the MC-30 is kerosene, so the remaining 62.8 percent is MC-3,000.


x = amount of kerosene, in gallons, to add to 750 gallons of MC-3,000

The amount of kerosene is as follows:

Available = 1,750 gallons.
Previously used = 851 gallons.
Remaining = 899 gallons.
Since 899 gallons of kerosene are available and only 444 gallons are needed, there is enough kerosene to thin all of the MC-3,000. Add 750 gallons of MC-3,000 to 444 gallons of kerosene to make MC-30 (makes 1,194 gallons). The total amount of MC-30 that can be produced is 3,045 gallons (1,851 + 1,194).

Source -

January 4, 2009

Tar Bleeds due to Excess Traffic and Heat

The PWD officials says that they will avail German technology to remove the undulations on the riding surface of the bridge caused by the bleeding of tar due to movement of heavy traffic on it,"

The 850-odd metre bridge, which was thrown open for traffic in 1994, has a total surface area of 6,000 sq m, but a sizeable part of it has developed humps due to the melting of bitumen on the 14-year-old bridge.

"About one metre of the bridge from the footpaths has become unusable," said PWD sources who did not want to be named. PWD authorities attribute the problem to inexperienced workers using excess bitumen while laying the wearing coat.

For a long time, PWD authorities tried various measures, including routine ones like burning, to rectify the problem, but it hasn't helped, sources said. "The tar melts with the heating caused by heavy traffic," they added.

The new technology has been tried in cities like Mumbai. "Its use on the Mandovi bridge will be for demonstration," sources said, hinting that the PWD will be charged a minimal fee, as the agency is keen to popularize this technology.

Some roads in Panaji also have "bleeding" parts due to movement of heavy traffic, and recourse to this technology to remove the humps is likely, sources said.

July 11, 2008

Total to Tap Indian Bitumen Market

International oil and gas giant Total of France on Wednesday announced the setting up of a joint venture with Vinergy International for manufacturing and marketing world-class value added bitumen products for India. The joint venture will witness an investment of Rs. 100 crore during the next three years.

Making this announcement here, Total’s India Country Chairman, Christian Chammas, told newsmen that the 50:50 joint venture, Total Vinergy Bitumen India, had already commissioned a plant at Jodhpur in Rajasthan with an investment of about Rs. 25 crore and was in the process of selecting sites for setting up units in East, South and West of the country.

Vinergy Managing Director, Mukul Agarwal, said the four plants would have a bitumen manufacturing capacity of three lakh tonnes a year. Bitumen is used in the construction of roads and highways.

“The quality of bitumen being produced at these plants would be much higher than what was available. We are going to introduce the latest technology that would ensure that the life of roads would increase by 3-4 years,” Mr. Chammas said.

The joint venture will provide high quality bitumen and modified bituminous products to the road construction industry, something that is now not available. Mr. Aggarwal said they planned to commission one plant a year adding that the country had a demand of 4.1 million tonnes of bitumen as against a supply of 3.7 million tonnes. The joint venture is targeting $50 million in sales in the first year of operation.

July 6, 2008

Safety in handling bitumen

This arricle was reporduced from BBC for the sake of safety in handling bitumen

15-year-old boy was engulfed in flames and suffered a serious ankle injury when a metal drum exploded.

The teenager was using a grinder to cut the top off the 45 gallon drum, which contained a residue of bitumen, when a spark set off an explosion.

He suffered burns to his face and right hand and the blade from the grinder sliced into his ankle.

The boy was helping out at his father's fencing business in Brentwood, Essex, when the accident happened.

When Essex Fire and Rescue Service arrived, workers at the site had already stripped off the boy's burning clothes and put out the flames.

One of the first fire fighters on the scene, sub officer Neil Young said: "When we arrived, the boy was in a very bad way.

"Every exposed part of his body had been burnt. We put dressing on his burns and bandaged his ankle while waiting for paramedics to arrive."

The teenager was taken to the burns unit at Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford. His injuries are not thought to be life-threatening.

June 24, 2008

Tax Structure for import of Bitumen

The hike in oil prices, indirectly brings in revenue to various government entities and below is the table of various slab of tax levied at Tamil Nadu, India.


Recoverable Tax Irrecoverable Tax Effective Purchase Tax

Sales Tax Surcharge on Sales Tax Addl Tax on GST/Turnover Tax. Purchase Tax Surcharge on Purchase Tax Addi. Tax on Pur. Turnover.
CST # Addl Tax on CST to Unregd. dealers Purchase Tax (Chennai)
Crude Oil


4.00 0.00

4.00 0.00
SKO Domestic 4.00
3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
LPG Domestic 4.00

4.00 2.50
16.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
0.00 5.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00
16.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
16.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
ATF Domestic 29.00
0.00 5.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00
ATF Int.Airlines 0.00
0.00 5.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 4.00 0.00
SKO Non-Domestic 25.00 5.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
LPG 8.00
3.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50
3.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 0.00 4.00 2.50

# CST to Unregistered dealers is levied at 10% or regular GST rate whichever is higher. Additional tax on CST sale to unregd. dealers is irrecoverable.

The commodities covered includes

Bitumen, bitumen 80/100, bitumen 60/70, bitumen 40/50, Saudi Bitumen, Singapore Bitumen, Iran Bitumen, Cutback Bitumen, MC30 , MC70, MC250 MC800, RC30, RC70,RC250, RC800, RC3000 Blown Bitumen R90/15, R85/25, R115/15, Bitumen Emulsion, CSS-1, CSS-2 , Asphalt, Oxidiszed bitumen, Bitumen Price, Asian Bitumen, Aramco Bitumen, Shell bitumen, Russia Bitumen Caltex bitumen, Exxon-mobil bitumen, BP bitumen, Korea Bitumen,

Bitumen Drum, Drummed Bitumen, Bitumen Bulk, Bitumen Vessel, , Bitumenexporter, Bitumen Exporter, Bitumen Supplier

Sulphur, Paraffin, Wax , Slack, LDPE, HDPE Granules, Petroleoum, Derivatives, Minerals, Lubrication Oil, Base Oil, Base oil 100 SN, 150SN, 450SN, 500SN, 150BS