Showing posts with label asphalt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label asphalt. Show all posts

September 7, 2017

What Keeps u Moving ?

Event-driven projects 'shielding Mena economies'

DUBAI, 21 hours, 28 minutes ago

The Middle East and North Africa (Mena) region has undergone an enormous change over the past two decades, with unprecedented growth in economies and construction markets as countries in the region leveraged booming oil prices to invest in infrastructure and transform their cities into modern metropolises, according to an industry expert.

But over-reliance on oil revenues has caused government spending (and consequently growth) to fall as the oil price dropped, leaving the countries of the region seeking to reprioritise spending towards diversifying their economies and funding social investment, said Mace, an international consultancy and construction company.

Despite a rebound in GCC contract awards in H1 2017 of 14 per cent from a four-year low in 2016, results are still down 20 per cent from the same time last year, showing a challenging market, stated Mace's Mena cost consultancy business in its H2 tender cost report.

This competitive pricing environment has led to relatively stable tender price inflation across the region, ranging from 0.4 per cent in Kuwait to 2.5 per cent in Saudi Arabia, it said.

Event-driven projects and relatively diversified economies have proven a saving grace against this difficult backdrop, as has continued government investment in infrastructure and energy projects across the region, it added.

"Continuing the trend from 2016, the first half of 2017 has been competitive for the Mena construction market due to the low oil prices resulting in restricted government spending across the region," remarked Fergus Rossiter, the director of Mace Cost Consultancy (Mena).
"However, as the work for upcoming major events starts to ramp up, notably Expo 2020 in the UAE and the Fifa Football World Cup in Qatar, we are starting to see an increase in tender prices, which is further fuelled by recent increases in material prices, such as reinforcement steel," he noted
"We are yet to see the full impact of the current blockade has on the construction industry in Qatar, particularly as it relies heavily upon a large quantity of materials being imported from Saudi Arabia and the UAE,” he added.

Across the region tender prices have remained relatively stable, however there are considerable variations to be observed within the markets: some regions are reporting a softening in prices, while others experience some capacity constraints which are pushing them up.

Overall, the pricing environment remains very competitive with tender price inflation ranging from only 0.4 per cent to 2.5 per cent for 2017; client organisations are likely to continue to push to get the best possible prices, said Mace in its report.

Lower global commodity prices and increased competition for fewer privately and government financed projects is filtering through to increasingly competitive pricing in many markets, and despite there being plenty of work to fill order books, contractor and consultant prospects are vulnerable to tender periods taking longer to conclude, if at all, especially given recent government spending cutbacks due to the low oil price, it stated.

Contractors on key infrastructure or event-driven projects are less likely to be impacted by this, given the critical nature of these projects to the region’s ongoing economic diversification, however for the mainstream construction market, the competitive environment along with few capacity constraints in labour or materials and low commodity prices are all adding up to clients pressing for lower costs, it added.

According to Mace, factors such as the introduction of VAT across the region from 2018, as well as other taxes which may be levied as governments seek to consolidate their finances, are likely to put upward pressure on tender prices as contractors factor in these additional costs.

This effect will be particularly strongly felt in Saudi Arabia, with the highest tender price inflation at 2.5 per cent reflecting rising costs from newly imposed taxes and removal of subsidies for water and electricity, amongst others, as the Kingdom seeks to consolidate its finances.

Qatar is also expected to see some inflation in tender prices to reflect the greater materials cost risk, as new tenders force contractors to contractually bear the brunt of the costs of the blockade on the country, said the report.

Egypt is not considered in the Meed tender price index, but can be expected to see significant tender price inflation this year of at least 5 per cent, due to both the relatively hot construction market and the massive currency depreciation over the past year.

However some countries are faring better than others, with the UAE and Qatar boosted by their event-driven projects and relatively diversified economies, whilst Saudi Arabia and Oman struggle with reduced oil revenues, said the report by Mace.

Saudi Arabia and the UAE remain the biggest markets for construction projects, with the emirates looking likely to overtake the kingdom as the biggest next year, as their construction industry outperforms, stated the industry expert.

When considered with the completion dates edging closer for key event-driven projects such as the World Cup in Qatar, or the Expo 2020 in Dubai, strong demand-driven factors will counteract some of the damage from reduced government spending to the industry.

Locations less impacted by low oil prices are expected to outperform, with Dubai and Bahrain looking to beat Abu Dhabi or Kuwait. In addition, significant investment in port, road, railway and airport infrastructure across the region continues, with for example $37 billion worth of road projects being pursued across the GCC, it added.-
TradeArabia News Service

February 17, 2017

Bitumen in Road Construction

Bitumen is used in road construction due to various properties and advantages it has over other pavement construction materials. Advantages of bitumen for road construction is discussed.

Why is Bitumen Used in Road Construction?

Bitumen gain certain unique properties that are inbuilt in it during its manufacture. The bitumen as a raw material in flexible road construction and bitumen as a mix (composing other materials i.e. aggregates/ pozzolans) serves certain advantages, that prompt to use bitumen widely in road construction.


Use of Bitumen in Flexible Road Construction

The reason behind the significant application of bitumen in flexible pavements are explained below:

1. Production of Bitumen is economical

Bitumen is a by-product of crude oil distillation process. Crude oil itself is a composition of hydrocarbons. The primary products that are available are the petrol, diesel, high octane fuels and gasoline.
When these fuels are refined from the crude oil, the bitumen is left behind. Further treatment of by-product, to make it free from impurities give pure bitumen.
As the primary product demand is of utmost importance to the society, the bitumen as a by product has survival for long. This by product is utilized as a new construction material, without going for any other new resource.

2. Physical and Rheological Properties of Bitumen bring Versatility

The physical and the chemical properties of Bitumen are found to be a function of load level, temperature and the duration of loading. It is a thermoplastic and viscoelastic material.
These dependencies make us to truly access the traffic on the road so that a bitumen mix properties can be varied based on the stress levels calculated. This versatility of bitumen results in a large variety of bitumen mix, based on the road application.

3. The Melting Point of Bitumen is low

It is highly appreciable about the fact that bitumen has a favorable melting point, that helps in both surface dressing and wearing resistance with ease.
The melting point of the bitumen should not be too high, that it can be melted easily during laying the pavement. At the same time, bitumen has a melting point, which would not let the already casted road pave to melt and deform under high temperatures.
In areas of high temperatures, along with this quality of bitumen, the aggregate composition helps to cover up the effect of large temperature.

4. Bitumen can undergo Recycling

As the melting point of bitumen is favorable, it can be melted back to its original state. This is called as asphalt recycling process.
The torn-up asphalt pieces are taken up to the recycling plant, instead of sending them to landfills. This recycled mix can be reused. If necessary, the old bitumen is mixed with new bitumen and new aggregates to make the mix live again.

5. Bitumen gain Adhesive Nature

As explained in the production of bitumen, it is free from hydrocarbon and hence not toxic. The by product is refined to maximum to get rid of organic materials and impurities.
The bitumen has a highly adhesive nature, which keeps the materials in the road mix bind together under strong bonds. These become stronger when the mix is set i.e. ready for vehicle movement.

6. Bitumen has Color Variety

The traditional bitumen is black in color. This is because the dense organic material within bitumen is black in color. Now, when certain pigments are added to bitumen, the color of our choice can be obtained. These are colored bitumen.
It is costly than the normal colored bitumen. The disadvantage of colored bitumen is that it requires more chemical additives and materials.

Requirements of Bitumen Mixes for Road Construction

An overall bitumen mix is used in the construction of flexible pavement to serve the following needs.
  • Structural Strength
  • Surface Drainage
  • Surface Friction

Structural Strength of Bituminous Pavements

The figure below shows a typical cross section of flexible pavement, that was developed in the USA. The structural bitumen layer composes of:
  • Bituminous surface or wearing course
  • Bituminous binder course
  • Bituminous base course
The primary purpose of these bitumen mixes is structural strength provision. This involves even load dispersion throughout the layers of the pavement. The loads involved are dynamic or static loads, which is transferred to the base subgrade through the aggregate course.
A granular base with a bituminous surface course is only provided for roads of low traffic. It is just sufficient and economical.
The rebounding effect of bitumen upper layers helps in having resistance against high dynamic effect due to the heavy traffic. Rebounding property is reflected by the stiffness and the flexibility characteristics of the bitumen top layers. When looking from bottom to top, the flexibility characteristics should increase.
Studies have shown that the above mentioned characteristics of aggregates are attained using densely graded bitumen mixes. This mix should make use of nominal maximum size aggregate (NMAS), that must decrease from the base course- binder course – surface course.
The nominal maximum size aggregate (NMAS) = One sieve larger than first sieve-to retain more than 10% of combined aggregate.
There is a higher amount of bitumen content in the wearing course, that make the layer more flexible. This would help in increasing the durability.

Surface Drainage of Bituminous Pavements

Subsurface drainage can be facilitated using granular sub base in the construction of flexible pavement. Permeable asphalt treated base (PATB) can be used to provided positive surface drainage in major highways. This would behave as a separate course for facilitating subsurface drainage.

Surface Friction of Bituminous Roads

It is essential for the pavement layer to provide enough skid resistance and friction, during vehicle passage, especially in wet condition. This would ensure the safety of the passengers. The macro and the micro surface texture of the asphalt mix contributes towards the surface friction.

The mix gradation i.e. open graded or dense graded will contribute to macro surface texture. The open graded mix have higher macro surface than dense graded. The water is squeezed out from the bottom of vehicle tire when the high macro surface texture is implemented.
The micro surface texture is contributed by the aggregate surface, that is exposed when the above bitumen layer is torn.

Advantages of Bituminous Road Construction Over Concrete Pavements

1. A smooth Ride Surface

It does not make use of any joints; Hence provide a smooth surface to ride. It also gives less sound emission when compared with concrete pavements. The wear and tear are less in the bituminous pavement, thus maintaining the smoothness.

2. Gradual Failure

The deformation and the failure in the bituminous pavement is a gradual process. The concrete pavement shows brittle failures.

3. Quick Repair

They have an option to be repaired to be quick. They don’t consume time in reverting the path for traffic; as they set fast.

4. Staged Construction

This helps in carrying out staged construction in a situation when problems of fund constraint or traffic estimation problems are faced.

5. Life Cost is Less

The initial cost and overall maintenance cost of bituminous pavement are less compared to concrete pavement.

6. Temperature Resistant

They act resistant against high temperature from melting and are not affected by de-icing materials.

Disadvantages of Bituminous Pavement

  1. Bituminous pavements are less durable
  2. Low tensile strength compared to concrete pavement
  3. Extreme weather and improper weather conditions tend to make bituminous pavement slick and soft.
  4. Bitumen with impurities can cause pollution to soil, hence ground water by their melting. These may have hydrocarbons in small amounts.
  5. Clogging of pores and drainage path during construction and service life
  6. More salting- to prevent snow during winter season
  7. Cost of construction high during extreme conditions of temperature

Source - enggfeed

July 15, 2015

Orpic, Pörner sign deal for bitumen unit

Oman Oil Refineries and Petroleum Industries Company (Orpic) has signed a deal with Austria-based Pörner Group, a leading engineering contractor, to provide proprietary Biturox technology for a bitumen production unit planned in Sohar, according to a report.


The bitumen production unit will be a part of the multi-billion dollar Sohar Refinery Improvement Project (SRIP) and will enable Oman to produce bitumen in the sultanate for the first time, said the Oman Daily Observer.

The country has completely depended on imports from Iran and the UAE for its bitumen requirements in order to carry out projects such as asphalting of roads, and various other infrastructure related works.

Pörner Group said it will support the construction of a bitumen unit featuring a pair of reactors each with a capacity to produce 516 tonnes per day (tpd) of bitumen, it further reported.

In addition to supplying the licence and basic engineering, the group will also undertake the detailed engineering, pilot testing and commissioning of the new Biturox unit.

Additional assistance will be rendered in the form of start-up support, documentation and training, it said.
Source- Trade Arabia

September 26, 2012

Explosion at Asphalt Plant


A LARGE explosion rocked the industrial estate off Boundary Road at Narangba early this afternoon as flames engulfed a bitumen tanker at the Boral Asphalt plant.

A nearby tanker containing fuel, LPG and more bitumen was also in danger of catching alight before fire crews brought the blaze under control.
 
 Rowan Carnes was working at the mill across the road when he heard the explosion."It sounded like a tyre had popped on my forklift," he said.
 
"Next thing you know all the boys were pointing over this way and there's big smoke and flames coming out.
"It was quite large. Everyone in the whole mill, right across to the other side of the mill, could feel the concussion from it."
 
Karen Wintle said via facebook that she felt the impact at her work kilomtres away in Deception Bay.
There were 21 workers on-site when the explosion took place, including six in the immediate vicinity of the blaze, but none were injured.
 
The Boral workers were all evacuated along with more than 100 employees from neighbouring plants.
A Department of Community Services spokesperson confirmed the explosion took place at about 12.20pm.
Several police and ambulance vehicles as well as 25 fire-fighters attended in four fire trucks rushed to the scene.
 
Acting Inspector Jeff Barker, from Burpengary Command, said crews were able to see large volumes of smoke en-route and the tanker was well engulfed when they first arrived."There had actually been an explosion in the bitumen tank, which contained approximately 8000 litres of bitumen," he said.
 
"We were able to contain the fire in the tanker and therefore bring it under control."It's all been contained within the site. We've had environmental agencies here to control the runoff."Act Insp Barker said the workers "in close proximity" to the explosion were "very lucky" to escape.
 
"The explosion was quite substantial as far as I understand, with a fireball," he said.
"(There was) thick black smoke, we were lucky that the wind direction took it away from any neighbouring properties."
 
Superintendent David Tucker from Redcliffe Police District said it was still unclear what caused the explosion and Boral would be fully investigating the incident."Everything has the potential (to become very serious) but obviously the plant has acted appropriately under the circumstances and all the plans have been enacted beautifully."

June 23, 2012

Using Bitumen to Fuel Green Energy


Alberta already invests some carbon taxes in low emissions tech. But sky's the limit say industry insiders. Fifth in a series.

By Geoff Dembicki, Today, TheTyee.ca 


Wind farm near Pincher Creek
Road to a diversified economy: Wind farm near Pincher Creek, Alberta. Photo: Shutterstock.
Inside one of those towers are the offices of Greengate Power. To Alberta's leading producer of wind-powered electricity, the gusts blowing beyond the window represent money. A magazine displayed in the company's seventh-floor lobby had a cowboy on its cover, standing beneath two bone-white wind turbines.

"The challenge we have in Alberta," company founder and CEO Dan Balaban told me when we met in his sparsely furnished office down the hall, "is our need to diversify the economy beyond oil and gas."
One answer to that need, the green power executive thinks, is blowing across Alberta's prairies -- some of the strongest and most reliable, if under-utilized, wind resources in the entire world. Balaban hopes Greengate can ride those gusts into becoming the country's biggest independent producer of clean electricity.
But if there's an ill wind for Alberta's oil sands in the rise of clean energy, Balaban doesn't see it. Instead, he believes, the bitumen sector will find it difficult to expand without a lush green-energy sector alongside it.
"We're starting to see a backlash against Alberta's fossil fuel industry in some pretty meaningful ways," he said. "Demonstrating we have a vibrant renewable sector will help give us the social license we need."
Balaban's not the only Albertan, or the only executive, who sees the fates of clean energy and fossil fuels in Canada as closely tied. Alberta's government shares that view: for the past three years it’s invested revenue from the province's carbon-levy on large greenhouse gas emitters into a fund which supports low emissions technology.

Results so far have been modest -- leading critics to see a convenient way for major polluters to claim climate progress when little is actually being made.But as the scale of the climate challenge becomes clear, there are those who believe that radically experimental advances in technology are humanity's best shot at cooling the atmosphere.   



Promise
From the right vantage point in downtown Calgary, you can see past the city's western edge to where the prairie meets snow-capped Rocky Mountains. This abrupt change in elevation creates one of the most accessibly windy regions in the country, if not the world.A nascent wind-power industry has grown slowly over the past two decades to capture the resource. Wind turbines now supply about five per cent of Alberta's electricity needs, including the energy to run Calgary’s entire light rail system.

That figure is set to grow, especially with the construction of Greengate's 300 megawatt Blackspring Ridge project. When it's done, it will be the largest wind farm in Canada.Observers such as the Pembina Institute see huge potential as well for Alberta's hydro, biomass, geothermal, solar and cogeneration, among other low carbon energy sources.

Perhaps one day. But for now Alberta gets three-quarters of its electricity from the dirtiest fossil fuel of all, coal. Coal-fired power stations are the province's largest source of carbon emissions: 52.6 megatons in 2010 (although likely soon to be overtaken by oil sands emissions, which were 49 megatons that same year).
Standing street level in downtown Calgary, it's easy to lose sight of Greengate's seventh floor offices amidst the soaring towers that surround them, many branded by oil and gas company logos.  So too is Alberta's fledgling clean energy industry dwarfed by its fossil fuel counterpart.

Yet a provincial initiative now entering its third year of activity claims to be slowly turning that imbalance into a boon for global warming solutions. The Climate Change and Emissions Management Corporation (CCEMC) was created in 2007, after Alberta introduced North America's first market price on industrial greenhouse gas emissions.

It was a selective price, complexly applied. Each year, the province's largest emitters, collectively responsible for half of Alberta's carbon footprint, were expected to meet a climate reductions target set by the government.

This target wasn't based on slashing their overall emissions, but on a 12 per cent cut to the emissions intensity of their operations -- the carbon released, say, to produce one barrel of oil. (How that target actually applies to each emitter is based on a complex time frame that varies by operation.)
Failing to meet their target by year's end meant these emitters had to pay a penalty on whatever emissions exceeded it. At $15 per tonne of CO2, that penalty was considered by some to be little more than a limp-wristed slap.

Nevertheless, it now raises about $74 million each year for the province. That revenue goes directly to the arms-length CCEMC, whose mandate is to invest it in promising low-emissions technology.
"The vision I think overall, is not to abandon traditional forms of energy development," CCEMC executive director Kirk Andries told The Tyee Solutions Society. "But rather, as we draw down on those resources, be thinking about building up renewable forms of energy."

There's an elegant symmetry to the idea at odds with a few hard economic facts. Since its inception in 2010, the CCEMC has approved 32 low emissions projects worth $167 million in all. Last year alone, total oil sands investment was about $15 billion.  Still, the Crown corporation claims that each dollar it invests is leveraged three to four times, bringing CCEMC's real impact closer to $830 million. It also argues that many technologies it funds wouldn't have been feasible without its support.  

One example it points to is a $2.65 million investment in Coastal Hydropower Corp.'s Carseland project, a plan to generate low-impact hydropower from the Bow River with "fish-friendly" underwater turbines.
"CCEMC funding is essential to the Carseland project," Coastal founder and president Neil Anderson says in the technology fund's annual report.

Or there's the $10 million the CCEMC has pledged to Biorefinex Canada Inc. That will help fund a demonstration facility outside Lacombe, Alberta, which turns organic animal waste (think carcasses and cattle feces) into renewable electricity and high-grade fertilizer.  Small technology start-ups like those aren't the only companies benefiting from CCEMC support. Some of Alberta's major greenhouse gas emitters have also applied for, and received, funding.

Suncor, for instance, which made $1.46 billion in net income in the first quarter of 2012, is using a $3.3 million CCEMC investment to research new ways of making oil sands operations more energy (and hence, carbon) efficient. Encana, Cenovus, ConocoPhillips and Nova Chemicals have also received financial backing.Andries was unapologetic about directing public money to some of Canada's most profitable, and most polluting, companies."We're here to pick the best projects possible," he said. "From my perspective, it doesn't matter what size of company it is. What matters is, how many tonnes of GHG are you going to reduce?"

Waiting for results

That's a question critics have asked more broadly of the CCEMC itself. The corporation claimed in its most recent annual report that projects it has supported to date will reduce Alberta's carbon footprint by 8 megatons by 2020, or about one sixth of the province's medium-term reduction target.

Pembina Institute calculations suggest that's optimistic. The non-partisan research body thinks CCEMC's venture will cut Alberta's emissions just one megaton by 2020, a fraction of the corporation’s estimate.
That perspective may be too short. Some CCEMC investments, Pembina acknowledged recently, "hold the promise of paving the way for greater emission reductions in the longer term.” Ultimately, it judged, "it is too soon to tell how effective" the technology fund will really be.

That hasn't stopped some oil sands producers from arguing that paying Alberta's $15 carbon levy, and thereby investing in the fund, is equivalent to reducing greenhouse gas emissions at their own operations.
"This strategy," Nexen claimed in documents it filed to the 2010 Carbon Disclosure Project, "is fiscally prudent and meets environmental objectives. A tonne of carbon [reduced] from any eligible/verifiable source has the same net environmental effect."

Which is technically true. But it's not the reality -- not yet. Paying the government's $15-a-tonee carbon levy is an investment in low-carbon technology, but it won't result in actual carbon reductions for years to come, or possibly ever.

Overall, Pembina has concluded that CCEMC's technology fund is, "inherently a mechanism that defers emission reductions until later."Depending on your perspective that's either a cynical way for government and industry to claim progress while deferring harder choices; or, it's a tantalizing wager on new technologies, that while untested and therefore risky, could pay off hugely in the future.

The snowball effect

That gamble has its proponents. Many climate thought leaders have expressed doubt that for all that binding targets, public exhortations, industrial regulations or even carbon pricing can accomplish, it won't be enough to solve our global warming crisis. The missing factor, those analysts say, is transformative technology, an overhaul of energy systems on par with the microchip revolution.

The best way to accomplish such a techno-revolution, McGill University economist Christopher Green and co-author Isabel Galiana argued in a 2009 paper for California's Breakthrough Institute (the group which has led much of this thinking), is robust support at the centre of any climate strategy for research and development of new technologies.They see a modest carbon tax, rising slowly over time, playing an important ancillary role as a reliable source of income to fund risky new low-carbon projects: almost exactly (minus the rising carbon tax) Alberta's plan.
 
Green acknowledged that Alberta’s approach, "might not do a lot on the emissions front" right now. "But when it starts paying off," he told The Tyee Solutions Society, "it could be like a snowball coming down a hill with wet snow, and having a tremendous effect in transforming the world's energy picture."
Leaned back in his office chair, Balaban, the Greengate Power CEO, is focused on a less dramatic transformation: proving to Canada's oil and gas capital that clean energy can deliver high economic performance alongside its environmental benefits.

He listed several ways Alberta could accelerate the business case for renewables: implement a clean energy standard, favour natural gas over coal, raise the province's carbon price. Yet even Balaban seems reticent about imagining a near future without hydrocarbons at all."I believe it's in all of Canada's interest that we have a healthy fossil fuel sector in Alberta," he said. "Increasingly this is a driver of the national economy."

Maybe Balaban is just a realist. Or perhaps this is how you build consensus for clean energy in a province that emits more than a third of Canada's greenhouse gases, by presenting your low-carbon sector as less of a rival to fossil hydrocarbons and more as an ally, whose vitality is in their best interest.

"To continue developing our fossil fuel-based resources we need to demonstrate that we're environmentally responsible," Balaban said of Alberta. Then comes the pitch: "We have the opportunity to exploit some of best renewable energy resources in the world."

The one, he believes, can clearly help the other.

Source -The Tyee

April 25, 2012

Bitumen Production

Bitumen Production of various refineries around the World.

Source - Nationmaster


Rank   Countries  Amount  Date  
# 1     United States: 30,815,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 2     Soviet Union: 16,100,000 ton  1991 Time series
# 3     China: 9,229,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 4     Japan: 5,395,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 5     Russia: 4,986,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 6     Canada: 4,620,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 7     Iran: 3,786,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 8     Germany: 3,601,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 9     India: 3,576,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 10     Spain: 2,900,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 11     Korea, South: 2,482,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 12     Malaysia: 2,124,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 13     Singapore: 1,975,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 14     Saudi Arabia: 1,930,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 15     United Kingdom: 1,912,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 16     Turkey: 1,761,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 17     Venezuela: 1,689,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 18     Brazil: 1,420,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 19     Taiwan: 1,375,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 20     Poland: 1,139,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 21     Thailand: 1,093,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 22     Belgium: 1,076,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 23     Netherlands Antilles: 1,044,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 24     Mexico: 953,000 ton  1990 Time series
# 25     Czechoslovakia: 910,000 ton  1991 Time series
# 26     Egypt: 905,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 27     Sweden: 837,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 28     South Africa: 802,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 29     East Germany: 730,000 ton  1990 Time series
# 30     Argentina: 666,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 31     Czech Republic: 536,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 32     Chile: 500,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 33     Iraq: 491,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 34     Hungary: 477,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 35     Austria: 466,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 36     Ukraine: 451,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 37     Belarus: 443,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 38     Indonesia: 430,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 38     Australia: 430,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 40     Bahrain: 410,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 40     Greece: 410,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 42     Netherlands: 408,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 43     Syria: 400,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 44     Portugal: 386,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 45     Finland: 311,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 46     Pakistan: 296,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 47     Colombia: 276,000 ton  1994 Time series
# 48     Algeria: 254,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 49     Kuwait: 214,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 50     Côte d'Ivoire: 200,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 51     Morocco: 198,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 52     Croatia: 181,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 52     Bulgaria: 181,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 54     Libya: 169,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 55     Lithuania: 163,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 56     Romania: 157,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 57     Israel: 138,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 58     Azerbaijan: 128,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 59     New Zealand: 117,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 60     Jordan: 114,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 61     Yemen: 113,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 62     Kazakhstan: 109,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 63     Peru: 107,000 ton  2001 Time series
# 64     Uzbekistan: 104,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 65     Ecuador: 102,000 ton  1995 Time series
# 66     Yugoslavia: 91,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 67     Albania: 87,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 68     Sri Lanka: 52,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 69     Slovakia: 49,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 70     Cuba: 43,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 71     Philippines: 33,000 ton  2003 Time series
# 72     Trinidad and Tobago: 27,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 73     Nicaragua: 21,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 74     El Salvador: 20,000 ton  1995 Time series
# 75     Nigeria: 19,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 76     Gabon: 15,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 76     Kenya: 15,000 ton  2005 Time series
# 78     Costa Rica: 13,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 79     Panama: 10,000 ton  1995 Time series
= 79     Uruguay: 10,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 81     Jamaica: 9,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 81     Cyprus: 9,000 ton  2004 Time series
= 83     Georgia: 8,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 83     Norway: 8,000 ton  1994 Time series
# 85     Angola: 7,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 86     Denmark: 5,000 ton  2003 Time series
= 86     Zambia: 5,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 86     Barbados: 5,000 ton  1997 Time series
= 86     Cameroon: 5,000 ton  2005 Time series
= 90     Ethiopia: 2,000 ton  1999 Time series
= 90     Bolivia: 2,000 ton  2005 Time series
Total: 122,271,000 ton  
Weighted average: 1,343,637.4 ton